Ligaments connect bones to other bones across a joint. A sprain means the ligament tissue has been over-stretched or torn usually as a result of a fall or twist.
A strain means the muscle has been over-stretched or torn.
Tendonitis & Tendinopathy
Tendons attach muscles to bone. Tendonitis means the the tendon has become inflamed often as a result of overuse. Tendinopathy is a general term for disease to a tendon
Fascia is dense connective tissue that surrounds and interpenetrates muscles, bones, nerves and blood vessels. Fasciitis is inflammation of the fascia which most commonly occurs in the plantar fascia under the feet.